CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

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               CONSTITUTION FOR THE UNITED STATES
                           OF AMERICA

                            Preamble

We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more
perfect Union, establish Justice, insure domestic Tranquility,
provide for the common defence, promote the general Welfare, and
secure the Blessings of Liberty to ourselves and our Posterity, do
ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of
America.

                           Article I.

     Sect. 1.  All legislative Powers herein granted shall be
vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of
a Senate and a House of Representatives.

     Sect. 2-1.  The House of Representatives shall be composed
of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several
states, and the Electors in each state shall have ^the
Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch
of the State Legislature.

     2-2.  No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have
attained to the Age of twenty-five Years, and been seven Years a
Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be
an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

     2-3.  Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned
among the several States which may be included within this Union,
according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined
by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those
bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not
taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.  The actual Enumeration
shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the
Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term
of ten Years in such Manner as they shall by Law direct.  The
Number of Representative shall not exceed one for every thirty
Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative;
and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New
Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight,
Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five,
New-York six, New-Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one,
Maryland six, Virginia ten, North-Carolina five, South-Carolina
five, and Georgia three.

     2-4.  When vacancies happen in the Representation from any
State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of
Election to fill such Vacancies.

     2-5.  The House of Representatives shall choose the Speaker
and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

     Sect. 3-1.  The Senate of the United States shall be
composed of two Senators from each state chosen by the
Legislature thereof, for six Years and each Senator shall have
one Vote.

     3-2.  Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence
of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be
into three Classes.  The Seats of the Senators of the first Class
shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the
second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the
third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one-
third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by
Resignation, or otherwise during the Recess of the Legislature of
any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments
until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill
such Vacancies.

     3-3.  No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained
to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the
United States, who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of
that State for which he shall be chosen.

     3-4.  The Vice- President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote unless they be equally divided.

     3-5.  The Senate shall choose their other Officers, and also a
President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or
when he shall exercise the Office of President of the United
States.

     3-6.  The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all
impeachments.  When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on
Oath or Affirmation.  When the President of the United States is
tried, the Chief Justice shall preside:  And no Person shall be
convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members
present.

     3-7.  Judgement in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend
further than to removal from Office,and disqualification to hold
and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United
States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and
subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according
to Law.

     Sect. 4-1.  The Times, Places and Manner of holding
Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed
in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at
any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the
Places of choosing Senators.

     4-2.  The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year,
and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless
they shall by Law appoint a different Day.
     Sect. 5-1.  Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections,
Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of
each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller
Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to
compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and
under such Penalties as each House may provide.
     5-2.  Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings,
punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the
Concurrence of two thirds, expel a Member.

     5-3.  Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and
from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may
in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the
Members of either House on any question shall, at the Desire of
one fifth of those Present be entered on the Journal.

     5-4.  Neither House, during the Session of Congress shall,
without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three
days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses
shall be sitting.

     Sect. 6-1.  The Senators and Representatives shall receive
a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and
paid out of the Treasury of the United States.  They shall in all
Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be
privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of
their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the
same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall
not be questioned in any other Place.

     6-2.  No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for
which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the
Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or
the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such
time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States,
shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in
Office.

     Sect. 7-1.  All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate
in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or
concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

     7-2.  Every Bill which shall have passed the House of
Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it becomes a Law,
be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve
he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his
Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who
shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed
to reconsider it.  If after such Reconsideration two thirds of
that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent,
together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it
shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of
that House, it shall become a Law.  But in all such Cases the
Votes of both Houses shall be determined by Yeas and Nays, and
the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be
entered on the Journal of each House Respectively.  If any Bill
shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sunday
excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the same
shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the
Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case
it shall not be a Law.

     7-3.  Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the
Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representative may be
necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be
presented to the President of the United States; and before the
Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being
disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate
and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and
Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

     Sect. 8-1.  The Congress shall have Power To lay and
collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and
provide for the common Defence and general Welfare of the United
States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform
throughout the United States;

     8-2.  To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

     8-3.  To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the
several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

     8-4.  To establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization, and
uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United
States;

     8-5.  To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of
foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

     8-6.  To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the
Securities and current Coin of the United States;

     8-7.  To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

     8-8.  To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by
securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive
Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

     8-9.  To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

     10.  To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on
the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

     8-11.  To declare War, grant letters of Marque and Reprisal,
and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

     8-12.  To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of
Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;
     8-13.  To provide and maintain a Navy;

     8-14.  To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the
land and naval Forces;

     8-15.  To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the
Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

     8-16.  To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining,
the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be
employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the
States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the
Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline
prescribed by Congress;

     8-17.  To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases
whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square)
as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of
Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States,
and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the
Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall
be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, Dock-yards,
and other needful Buildings; -And

     8-18.  To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper
for carrying into execution the foregoing Powers, and all other
Powers vested by the Constitution in the Government of the United
States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

     Sect. 9-1.  The Migration or Importation of such Persons as
any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall
not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand
eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such
Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

     9-2.  The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be
suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the
public Safety require it.

     9-3.  No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be
passed.

     9-4.  No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid,
unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before
directed to be taken.

     9-5.  No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from
any State.

     9-6.  No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of
Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of
another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be
obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

     9-7.  No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in
Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular
Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all
public Money shall be published from time to time.

     9-8.  No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United
States; And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under
them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any
present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from
any King, Prince, or foreign State.

     Sect. 10-1.  No State shall enter into any Treaty,
Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal;
coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and
silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of
Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of
Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

     10-2.  No State shall, without the Consent of the Congress, lay
any Imposts or Duties on Imports or Exports, except what may be
absolutely necessary for executing its inspection Laws:  and the
net Produce of all Duties and Imposts, laid by any State on
Imports or Exports, shall be for the Use of the Treasury of the
United States; all such Laws shall be subject to the Revision and
Control of the Congress.

     10-3.  No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any
Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of peace,
enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a
foreign power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in
such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

                           Article II.

     Sect. 1-1.  The executive Power shall be vested in a
President of the United States of America.  He shall hold his
Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice
President, chosen for the same Term, be elected as follows.

     1-2.  Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the
Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to
the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the
State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or
Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit
under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

     1-3.  The Electors shall meet in their respective States, and
vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be
an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves.  And they shall
make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of
Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and
transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United
States, directed to the President of the Senate.  The President
of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of
Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall
then be counted.  The Person having the greatest Number of Votes
shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole
Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who
have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the
House of Representatives shall immediately choose by Ballot one
of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then
from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like
Manner choose the President.  But in choosing the President, the
Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each
State having one Vote; a Quorum for this Purpose shall consist of
a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority
of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice.  In every Case,
after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest
Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President.  But
if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the
Senate shall choose from them by Ballot the Vice President.

     1-4.  The Congress may determine the Time of the choosing the
Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which
Day shall be the same through the United States.

     1-5.  No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of
the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this
Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President;
neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not
have attained to the Age of thirty five Years, and been fourteen
Years a Resident within the United States.

     1-6.  In Case of the Removal of the President from Office, or
his Death, Resignation, or Inability to discharge the Powers and
Duties of the said Office, the same shall devolve on the Vice
President, and the Congress may by Law provide for the Case of
Removal, Death, Resignation or Inability, both of the President
and Vice President, declaring what Officer shall then act as
President, and such Officer shall act accordingly, until the
Disability be removed, or a President be elected.

     1-7.  The President shall, at stated Times, receive for his
Services, a Compensation, which shall neither be increased nor
diminished during the Period for which he shall have been
elected, and he shall not receive within that Period any other
Emolument from the United States, or any of them.

     1-8.  Before he enter on the Execution of his Office, he shall
take the following Oath or Affirmation:  “I do solemnly swear (or
affirm) that I will faithfully execute the Office of President of
the United States, and will to the best of my Ability, preserve,
protect and defend the Constitution of the United States.”

     Sect. 2-1.  The President shall be Commander in Chief of
the Army and Navy of the United States, and of the Militia of the
several States, when called into the actual Service of the United
States; he may require the Opinion, in writing of the principal
Officer in each of the executive Departments, upon any Subject
relating to the Duties of their respective Offices, and he shall
have Power to grant Reprieves and Pardons for Offenses against
the United States, except in Cases of Impeachment.

     2-2.  He shall have Power, by and with the Advice and Consent
of the Senate, to make Treaties, provided two thirds of the
Senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with
the Advice and Consent of the Senate, shall appoint Ambassadors,
other public Ministers and Consuls, Judges of the supreme Court,
and all other Officers of the United States, whose Appointments
are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be
established by Law; but the Congress may by Law vest the
Appointment of such inferior Officers, as they think proper, in
the President alone, in the Courts of Law, or in the Heads of
Departments.

     2-3.  The President shall have Power to fill up all Vacancies
that may happen during the Recess of the Senate, by granting
Commissions which shall expire at the End of their next Session.

     Sect. 3.  He shall from time to time give to the Congress
Information of the State of the Union, and recommend to their
Consideration such Measures as he shall judge necessary and
expedient; he may, on extraordinary Occasions, convene both
Houses, or either of them, and in Case of Disagreement between
them, with Respect to the Time of Adjournment, he may adjourn
them to such Time as he shall think proper; he shall receive
Ambassadors and other public Ministers; he shall take Care that
the Laws be faithfully executed, and shall Commission all the
Officers of the United States.

     Sect. 4.  The President, Vice President and all civil
Officers of the United States, shall be removed from Office on
impeachment for, and Conviction of, Treason, Bribery, or other
high Crimes and Misdemeanors.

                          Article III.

     Sect. 1.  The judicial Power of the United States, shall be
vested in one supreme Court, and in such inferior Courts as the
Congress may from time to time ordain and establish.  The Judges,
both of the supreme and inferior Courts, shall hold their Offices
during good Behavior, and shall, at stated Times, receive for
their Services, a Compensation, which shall not be diminished
during their Continuance in Office.

     Sect. 2-1.  The judicial Power shall extend to all Cases,
in Law and Equity, arising under this Constitution, the Laws of
the United States, and Treaties made, or which shall be made,
under their Authority; to all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other
public Ministers, and Consuls; – to all Cases of admiralty and
maritime Jurisdiction; – to Controversies to which the United
States shall be a Party; – to controversies between two or more
States; -between a State and Citizens of another State; – between
Citizens of different States; – between Citizens of the same
State claiming Lands under Grants of different States, and
between a State, or the Citizens thereof, and foreign States,
Citizens, or Subjects.

     2-2.  In all Cases affecting Ambassadors, other public
Ministers and Consuls, and those in which a State shall be Party,
the supreme Court shall have original Jurisdiction.  In all the
other Cases before mentioned, the supreme Court shall have
appellate Jurisdiction, both as to Law and Fact, with such
Exceptions and under such Regulations as the Congress shall make.

     2-3.  The trial of all Crimes, except in Cases of Impeachment,
shall be by Jury; and such Trial shall be held in the State where
the said Crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed
within any State the Trial shall be at such Place or Places as
the Congress may by Law have directed.

     Sect. 3-1.  Treason against the United States shall consist
only in levying War against them, or in adhering to their
Enemies, giving them Aid and Comfort.  No Person shall be
convicted of Treason unless on the Testimony of two Witnesses to
the same overt Act, or on Confession in open Court.

     3-2.  The Congress shall have Power to declare the Punishment
of Treason, but no Attainder of Treason shall work Corruption of
Blood, or Forfeiture except during the Life of the Person
attained.

                           Article IV.

     Sect. 1.  Full Faith and Credit shall be given in each State
to the public Acts, Records, and Judicial proceedings of every
other State.  And the Congress may, by general Laws, prescribe
the Manner in which such Acts, Records, and Proceedings shall be
proved, and the Effect thereof.

     Sect. 2-1.  The Citizens of each State shall be entitled to
all Privileges and Immunities of Citizens in the several States.

     2-2.  A Person charged in any State with Treason, Felony, or
other Crime, who shall flee from Justice, and be found in another
State, shall, on Demand of the executive Authority of the State
from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the State
having Jurisdiction of the Crime.

     2-3.  No Person held to Service or Labor in one State, under
the Laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in Consequence of
any Law or Regulation therein, be discharged from such Service or
Labor, but shall be delivered up on Claim of the Party to whom
such Service or Labor may be due.
     Sect. 3-1.  New States may be admitted by the Congress into
this Union; but no new State shall be formed or erected within
the jurisdiction of any other State, nor any State be formed by
the Junction of two or more States, or Parts of States, without
the Consent of the Legislatures of the States concerned as well
as of the Congress.

     3-2.  The Congress shall have Power to dispose of and make all
needful Rules and Regulations respecting the Territory or other
Property belonging to the United States; and nothing in this
Constitution shall be so construed as to Prejudice any Claims of
the United States, or of any particular State.

     Sect. 4.  The United States shall guarantee to every State
in this Union a Republican Form of Government, and shall protect
each of them against Invasion; and on Application of the
Legislature, or of the Executive (when the Legislature cannot be
convened) against domestic Violence.

                           Article V.

     The Congress, whenever two-thirds of both Houses shall deem
it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution, or,
on the Application of the Legislatures of two thirds of the
several States, shall call a Convention for proposing Amendments,
which, in either Case, shall be valid, to all Intents and
Purposes, as Part of this Constitution, when ratified by the
Legislatures of three fourths of the several States, or by
conventions in three fourths thereof, as the one or the other
Mode of Ratification may be proposed by the Congress; provided
that no Amendment which may be made prior to the Year One
thousand eight hundred and eight shall in any Manner affect the
first and fourth Clauses in the Ninth Section of the first
Article; and that no State, without its Consent, shall be
deprived of its equal Suffrage in the Senate.

                           Article VI.

     Sect. 1.  All Debts contracted and Engagements entered into,
before the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be as valid
against the United States under this Constitution, as under the
Confederation.

     Sect. 2.  This Constitution, and the Laws of the United
States which shall be made in Pursuance thereof; and all Treaties
made, or which shall be made, under the Authority of the United
States, shall be the supreme Law of the Land; and the Judges in
every State shall be bound thereby, any Thing in the Constitution
or Laws of any State to the Contrary notwithstanding.

     Sect. 3.  The Senators and Representatives before mentioned,
and the Members of the several State Legislatures, and all
executive and judicial Officers, both of the United States and of
the several States, shall be bound by Oath or Affirmation, to
support this Constitution; but no religious Test shall ever be
required as a Qualification to any Office or public Trust under
the United States.

                          Article VII.

     Sect. 1.  The Ratification of the Conventions of nine States
shall be sufficient for the Establishment of this Constitution
between the States so ratifying the Same.

     Sect. 2.  Done in Convention, by the Unanimous Consent of
the States present, the Seventeenth Day of September, in the Year
of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Eighty-seven, and of
the Independence of the United States of America the Twelfth IN
WITNESS whereof, We have hereunto subscribed our Names.

Attest                  G. WASHINGTON
                        President and Deputy from Virginia
                           William Jackson, Secretary
.PA
                         BILL OF RIGHTS
                          Ratified 1791

                            Preamble

     THE Conventions of a number of the States, having at the
time of their adopting the Constitution, expressed a desire, in
order to prevent misconstruction or abuse of its powers, that
further declaratory and restrictive clauses should be added:  And
as extending the ground of public confidence in the Government
will best insure the beneficent ends of its institution.

     RESOLVED by the Senate and House of Representatives of the
United States of America in Congress assembled, two thirds of the
Houses, that the following Articles be proposed to the
Legislatures of the several States as Amendments to the
Constitution of the United States, all or any of which Articles
when ratified by three fourths of the said Legislatures, to be
valid to all intents and purposes as part of the said
Constitution., viz!

     ARTICLES in addition to, and Amendment of the Constitution
of the United States of America, proposed by Congress, and
ratified by the Legislatures of the several States, pursuant to
the fifth Article of the original Constitution.

                           Article I.

     Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of
religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging
the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the
people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for
a redress of grievances.

                           Article II.

     A well regulated Militia being necessary to the security of
a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms shall
not be infringed.

                          Article III.

     No Soldier shall, in time of peace, be quartered in any
house, without the consent of the Owner; nor in time of war, but
in a manner to be prescribed by law.

                           Article IV.

     The right of the people to be secure in their persons,
houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and
seizures, shall not be violated; and no Warrants shall issue, but
upon probable cause, supported by Oath or Affirmation, and
particularly describing the place to be searched and the persons
or things to be seized.
                           Article V.

     No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or
otherwise infamous, crime, unless on a presentment or indictment
of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval
forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service, in time of
War, or public danger; nor shall any person be subject, for the
same offence, to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor
shall be compelled, in any criminal case, to be a witness against
himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for
public use, without just compensation.

                           Article VI.

     In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the
right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the
State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed,
which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and
to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be
confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory
process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the
Assistance of Counsel for his defence.

                          Article VII.

     In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall
exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be
preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise re-
examined in any Court of the United States, than according to the
rules of the common law.

                          Article VIII.

     Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines
imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishment inflicted.

                           Article IX.

     The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights,
shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by
the people.

                           Article X.

     The powers not delegated to the United States by the
Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to
the States respectively, or to the people.
                           AMENDMENTS

                    Article XI, Ratified 1798

     The Judicial power of the United States shall not be
construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or
prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of
another State or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

                   Article XII, Ratified 1804

     The Electors shall meet in their respective states, and vote
by ballot for President and Vice-President, one of whom, at
least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same State with
themselves; they shall name in their ballots the person voted for
as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as
Vice-President, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons
voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-
President, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they
shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the
government of the United States, directed to the President of the
Senate; – The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of
the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the
certificates, and the votes shall then be counted; – The person
having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the
President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of
Electors appointed; and if no person have such a majority, then
from the persons having the highest numbers, not exceeding three,
on the list of those voted for a President, the House of
Representative shall choose immediately, by ballot, the
President.  But in choosing the President, the votes shall be
taken by states, the representation from each state having one
vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or
members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the
states shall be necessary to a choice.  And if the House of
Representatives shall not choose a President, whenever the right
of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March
next following, the Vice-President shall act as President, as in
case of death or other constitutional disability of the
President. –  The person having the greatest number of votes as
Vice-President, shall be the Vice-President, if such number be a
majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no
person have a majority, then form the two highest numbers on the
list, the Senate shall choose the Vice-President; a quorum for
the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of
Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary
to a choice.  But no person constitutionally ineligible to the
office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-President
of the United States.

                 Article XIII, Ratified in 1865

     Sect. 1.  Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except
as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly
convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place
subject to their jurisdiction.

     Sect. 2.  Congress shall have power to enforce this article
by appropriate legislation.

                  Article XIV, Ratified in 1868

     Sect. 1.  All persons born or naturalized in the United
States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of
the United States and of the State wherein they reside.  No State
shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges
or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any
State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without
due process of law; nor deny any person within its jurisdiction
the equal protection of the laws.

     Sect. 2.  Representatives shall be apportioned among the
several States according to their respective numbers, counting
the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not
taxed.  But when the right to vote at any election for the choice
of electors for President and Vice-President of the United
States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial
officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof,
is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being
twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in
any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion or other
crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in
the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear
to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in
such State.

     Sect. 3.  No person shall be a Senator or Representative in
Congress, or elector of President and Vice-President, or hold any
office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any
State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of
Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member
of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer
of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States,
shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same,
or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof.  But Congress
may, by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such
disability.

     Sect. 4.  The validity of the public debt of the United
States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment
of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection
or rebellion, shall not be questioned.  But neither the United
States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation
incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United
States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave;
but all such debts, obligations, and claims shall be held illegal
and void.
     Sect. 5.  The Congress shall have power to enforce, by
appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.

                  Article XV, Ratified in 1870

     Sect. 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of race, color, or previous condition of
servitude.

     Sect. 2.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

                  Article XVI, Ratified in 1913

     The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on
incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment
among the several States, and without regard to any census or
enumeration.

                 Article XVII, Ratified in 1913

     Sect. 1.  The Senate of the United States shall be composed
of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof,
for six years; and each Senator shall have one vote.  The
electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite
for electors of the most numerous branch of the State
Legislatures.

     Sect. 2.  When vacancies happen in the representationof any
State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall
issue writs of election to fill such vacancies:  Provided, That
the Legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to
make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies
by election as the Legislature may direct.

     Sect. 3.  This amendment shall not be so construed as to
affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it
becomes valid as part of the Constitution.

                 Article XVIII, Ratified in 1919
                        Repealed in 1933

     Sect. 1.  After one year from the ratification of this
article the manufacture, sale or transportation of intoxicating
liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation
thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the
jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited. 

     Sect. 2.  The Congress and the several States shall have
concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate
legislation.
     Sect. 3.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of the several States, as provided in the
Constitution, within seven years of the date of the submission
hereof to the States by Congress.

                  Article XIX, Ratified in 1920

     Sect. 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote
shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any
State on account of sex.

     Sect. 2.  Congress shall have power to enforce this article
by appropriate legislation.

                  Article XX, Ratified in 1933

     Sect. 1.  The terms of the President and Vice-President
shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of
Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of
the years in which such terms would have ended if this article
had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall
then begin.

     Sect. 2.  The Congress shall assemble at least once in every
year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of
January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.

     Sect. 3.  If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the
term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the
Vice-President elect shall become President.  If a President
shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the
beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have
failed to qualify, then the Vice-President elect shall act as
President until a President shall have qualified; and the
Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a
President elect nor a Vice-President elect shall have qualified,
declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which
one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act
accordingly until a President or Vice-President shall have
qualified.

     Sect. 4.  The Congress may by law provide for the case of
the death of any of the persons from whom the House of
Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of
choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the
death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a
Vice-President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved
upon them.

     Sect. 5.  Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day
of October following the ratification of this article.
     Sect. 6.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven
years from the date of its submission.

                  Article XXI, Ratified in 1933

     Sect. 1.  The eighteenth article of amendment to the
Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.
     Sect. 2.  The transportation or importation into any State,
Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use
therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws
thereof, is hereby prohibited.

     Sect. 3.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by
convention in the several States, as provided in the
Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission
hereof to the States by the Congress.

                 Article XXII, Ratified in 1951

     Sect. 1.  No person shall be elected to the office of the
President more than twice, and no person who has held the office
of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a
term to which some other person was elected President shall be
elected to the office of the President more than once.  But this
Article shall not apply to any persons holding the office of
President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and
shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of
President, or acting as President, during the term within which
his Article becomes operative from holding the office of
President or acting as President during the remainder of such
term.

     Sect. 2.  This article shall be inoperative unless it shall
have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the
legislatures of three-fourths of the several states within seven
years from the date of its submission to the states by the
Congress.
                 Article XXIII, Ratified in 1961

     Sect. 1.  The District constituting the seat of Government
of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress
may direct:

     A number of electors of President and Vice President equal
to the whole number of Senators and Representative in Congress to
which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in
no event more than the least populous State; they shall be in
addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be
considered, for the purposes of the election of President and
Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State; and they
shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by
the twelfth article of amendment.

     Sect. 2.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

                 Article XXIV, Ratified in 1964

     Sect. 1.  The right of citizens of the United States to vote
in any primary or other election for President or Vice President,
for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or
Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by
the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any
poll tax or other tax.

     Sect. 2.  The Congress shall have power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

                  Article XXV, Ratified in 1967

     Sect. 1.  In case of the removal of the President from
office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall
become President.

     Sect. 2.  Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the
Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who
shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both
houses of Congress.

     Sect. 3.  Whenever the President transmits to the President
Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of
Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to
discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he
transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such
powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as
Acting President.

     Sect. 4-1.  Whenever the Vice President and a majority of
either the principal officers of the executive departments, or of
such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the
President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
of Representatives their written declaration that the President
is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the
Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of
the office as Acting President.

     4-2.  Thereafter, when the President transmits to the
President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
of Representatives his written declaration that no inability
exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office
unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal
officers of the executive department or of such other body as
Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the
President Pro Tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House
of Representatives their written declaration that the President
is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. 
Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within 48
hours for that purpose if not in session.  If the Congress,
within 21 days after receipt of the latter written declaration,
or, if Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds
vote of both houses that the President is unable to discharge the
powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall
continue to discharge the same as Acting President; otherwise,
the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

                 Article XXVI, Ratified in 1971

     Sect. 1.  The right of citizens of the United States, who
are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or
abridged by the United States or by any state on account of age.

     Sect. 2.  The Congress shall have the power to enforce this
article by appropriate legislation.

 Source: http://www.1215.org

  
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Hello World It’s Me!

Posted on Updated on


Yes, I am just getting started blogging. It maybe a little rough around the edges for a while.. But, you gotta start somewhere right?

I plan on touching on a ton of subjects as I roll along. If you have something to share hit me up on Facebook.. Maybe your band needs a blog bio or you have a business or something just ticks you off and want to share it.. Holler!

Wayne